Sensors and Materials
is an international peer-reviewed open access journal to provide a forum for researchers working in multidisciplinary fields of sensing technology.
Sensors and Materials
is covered by Science Citation Index Expanded
(Clarivate Analytics), Scopus
(Elsevier), and other databases.
Instructions to authors
Instructions for manuscript preparation
Sensors and Materials
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0022, Japan
Research, a scientific publisher, seeks a native English-speaking proofreader with a scientific background. B.Sc. or higher degree is desirable. In-office position; work hours negotiable. Call 03-3827-8549 for further information.
(proofreading and recording)
The Art of Writing Scientific Papers
(How to write scientific papers)
Sensors and Materials, Volume 31, Number 5(1) (2019)
Copyright(C) MYU K.K. All Rights Reserved.
S&M1869 Research Paper of Special Issue
Published: May 16, 2019
Application of Water Indices in Surface Water Change Detection Using Landsat Imagery in Nepal [PDF]
Tri Dev Acharya, Anoj Subedi, He Huang, and Dong Ha Lee
(Received April 16, 2018; Accepted March 13, 2019)
Keywords: Landsat, water index, NDVI, NDWI, MNDWI, WRI, SWI, change detection, Sheyphoksundo, Phewa, Koshi
Surface water change is a very important indicator for environmental, climatic, and anthropogenic activities. Remotes sensors, such as Landsat, have been providing data since the last four decades, which are useful for extracting land cover types such as forest and water. Researchers have proposed many surface water extraction techniques, among which index-based methods are popular owing to their simplicity and cost effectiveness. By using the standard and Otsu threshold methods, water features can be mapped, thus changes can be detected. On the basis of the results of this study, the following water indices were applied, i.e., normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), water ratio index (WRI), and simple water index (SWI) for surface water extraction, and their changes using Landsat images. Three unique test sites from Nepal, which represent overall types of water features found in the country, were selected for this study. A model was developed in ArcGIS to differentiate the water features based on index methods and changes were calculated in terms of positive and negative. The results show that most of the case water index methods based on standard and Otsu thresholds cannot accurately separate water from its nearby backgrounds, such as melting ice, shadows of hills with or without vegetation, grasslands, and wet barren sand. From the current cases, it is not recommended to use the water indices in Nepal without any appropriate expert opinion or sitewise calibrated thresholding for automated water detection. However, they can be used for the overall change detection. Most of the change maps of the selected lakes showed good accuracies in some unique cases, such as the dark shadow and forest near a water body. SWI is good for stagnant lakes but not for water bodies with shifting features, such as the Koshi River. The model can be very useful in quickly understanding the changes in water bodies and taking the necessary measures to planners, but not much in accurate mapping. Furthermore, studies of different seasons, sensor data, and sites are necessary in the use of standard water indices for accurate change detection.
Corresponding author: Dong Ha Lee
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Cite this article
Tri Dev Acharya, Anoj Subedi, He Huang, and Dong Ha Lee, Application of Water Indices in Surface Water Change Detection Using Landsat Imagery in Nepal, Sens. Mater., Vol. 31, No. 5, 2019, p. 1429-1447.
Forthcoming Regular Issues
Forthcoming Special Issues
Special Issue on Sensing, Interaction, and Fusion towards Smart Cities
Guest editor, Xuefeng Li (Tongji University)Special Issue on Materials, Devices, Circuits, Analytical Methods for Various Sensors (Selected Papers from ICSEVEN 2018) (2)
Guest editor, Chien-Jung Huang (National University of Kaohsiung), Chi-Chih Liao (II-V Epiworks, Inc.), and Ja-Hao Chen (Feng Chia University)Conference websiteSpecial Issue on Graphene-Based Sensors & Regular Issue
Guest editor, Maki Suemitsu (Tohoku University)Special Issue on Food-Sensing Technologies and Applications
Guest editor, Hiroyuki Nakamoto (Kobe University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Universal Power Supply Technologies for Trillion Sensors Era
Guest editor, Keiji Takeuchi (NTT Data Institute of Management Consulting, Inc.)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Design, Fabrication, Characterization, and Application MEMS
Guest editor, Hiroyuki Fujita (Tokyo City University)Special Issue on Advanced Nanofabrication Processes for Emerging Devices and Materials
Guest editor, Hiroyuki Akinaga (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST)Call for paperSpecial Issue on AUTO2018
Guest editor, Hsiung-Cheng Lin (National Chin-Yi University of Technology)Special Issue on Sensors and Materials in Manufacturing
Guest editor, Ming Yan (Tokyo Metropolitan University) and Masao Murakawa (Nippon Institute of Technology)Call for paperSpecial Issue on IS3C2018
Guest editor, Hsiung-Cheng Lin (National Chin-Yi University of Technology)Special Issue on New Trend of Robotics and Applications
Guest editor, Ikuo Yamamoto (Nagasaki University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Magnetic Sensors and Applications
Guest editor, Keiji Tsukada (Okayama University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on CMOS-driven Biomedical Innovations
Guest editor, Kiichi Niitsu (Nagoya University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Smart Sensing Technology and Materials for Smart Industry and Environmental Applications
Guest editor, Somyot Kaitwanidvilai (King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Sensor Fusion and Environment Perception for Autonomous Systems
Guest editor, Chenguang Yang (University of the West of England, Bristol)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technologies for Sustainable Development
Guest editor, Dong Ha Lee and Tri Dev Acharya (Kangwon National University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on International Conference on BioSensors, BioElectronics, BioMedical Devices, BioMEMS/NEMS and Applications 2018/2019 (Bio4Apps 2018/2019)
Guest editor, Xiaojun Han (Harbin Institute of Technology)Conference websiteCall for paperSpecial Issue on Environmental Sensing
Guest editor, Hiroshi Aoki and Tetsuya Nakazato (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Advanced Materials on Electronic and Mechanical Devices and their Application on Sensors
Guest editor, Teen-Hang Meen (National Formosa University), Wenbing Zhao (Cleveland State University), and Cheng-Fu Yang (National University of Kaohsiung)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Advanced Micro and Nanomaterials for various Sensor Applications (Selected Papers from ICASI 2019)
Guest editor, Sheng-Joue Young (National Formosa University), Shoou-Jinn Chang (National Cheng Kung University), Liang-Wen Ji (National Formosa University), and Yu-Jen Hsiao (Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology)Conference websiteCall for paperSpecial Issue on Innovation in Smart Sensing Control, Metrology, Optimization and Intelligent Automation
Guest editor, Cheng-Chi Wang (National Chin-Yi University of Technology)Conference websiteCall for paperSpecial Issue on Materials, Devices, Circuits, Analytical Methods for Various Sensors (Selected Papers from ICSEVEN 2019)
Guest editor, Chien-Jung Huang (National University of Kaohsiung), Cheng-Hsing Hsu (National United University), Ja-Hao Chen (Feng Chia University), and Wei-Ling Hsu (Huaiyin Normal University)Conference websiteCall for paperSpecial Issue on Biological Odor Sensing System and Their Applications
Guest editor, Takeshi Sakurai (Tokyo University of Agriculture)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Software, Algorithms, and Applications Using Sensors and Networks
Guest editor, Yoshito Tobe (Aoyama Gakuin University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Novel Sensing Technologies for Point of Care, Home Care, and Personal Health Care
Guest editor, Yu-Lin Wang (National Tsing Hua University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Advances in Shape Memory Materials
Guest editor, Ryosuke Matsui (Aichi Institute of Technology) and Hiroyuki Miki (Tohoku University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Sensing in Medical Robots
Guest editor, Kenji Kawashima (Tokyo Medical and Dental University)Call for paper