ISSN (print) 0914-4935
ISSN (online) 2435-0869
Sensors and Materials
is an international peer-reviewed open access journal to provide a forum for researchers working in multidisciplinary fields of sensing technology.
Sensors and Materials
is covered by Science Citation Index Expanded
(Clarivate Analytics), Scopus
(Elsevier), and other databases.
Instructions to authors
Instructions for manuscript preparation
Sensors and Materials
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0022, Japan
Research, a scientific publisher, seeks a native English-speaking proofreader with a scientific background. B.Sc. or higher degree is desirable. In-office position; work hours negotiable. Call 03-3827-8549 for further information.
(proofreading and recording)
The Art of Writing Scientific Papers
(How to write scientific papers)
Sensors and Materials, Volume 31, Number 5(1) (2019)
Copyright(C) MYU K.K.
S&M1869 Research Paper of Special Issue
Published: May 16, 2019
Application of Water Indices in Surface Water Change Detection Using Landsat Imagery in Nepal [PDF]
Tri Dev Acharya, Anoj Subedi, He Huang, and Dong Ha Lee
(Received April 16, 2018; Accepted March 13, 2019)
Keywords: Landsat, water index, NDVI, NDWI, MNDWI, WRI, SWI, change detection, Sheyphoksundo, Phewa, Koshi
Surface water change is a very important indicator for environmental, climatic, and anthropogenic activities. Remotes sensors, such as Landsat, have been providing data since the last four decades, which are useful for extracting land cover types such as forest and water. Researchers have proposed many surface water extraction techniques, among which index-based methods are popular owing to their simplicity and cost effectiveness. By using the standard and Otsu threshold methods, water features can be mapped, thus changes can be detected. On the basis of the results of this study, the following water indices were applied, i.e., normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), water ratio index (WRI), and simple water index (SWI) for surface water extraction, and their changes using Landsat images. Three unique test sites from Nepal, which represent overall types of water features found in the country, were selected for this study. A model was developed in ArcGIS to differentiate the water features based on index methods and changes were calculated in terms of positive and negative. The results show that most of the case water index methods based on standard and Otsu thresholds cannot accurately separate water from its nearby backgrounds, such as melting ice, shadows of hills with or without vegetation, grasslands, and wet barren sand. From the current cases, it is not recommended to use the water indices in Nepal without any appropriate expert opinion or sitewise calibrated thresholding for automated water detection. However, they can be used for the overall change detection. Most of the change maps of the selected lakes showed good accuracies in some unique cases, such as the dark shadow and forest near a water body. SWI is good for stagnant lakes but not for water bodies with shifting features, such as the Koshi River. The model can be very useful in quickly understanding the changes in water bodies and taking the necessary measures to planners, but not much in accurate mapping. Furthermore, studies of different seasons, sensor data, and sites are necessary in the use of standard water indices for accurate change detection.
Corresponding author: Dong Ha Lee
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Cite this article
Tri Dev Acharya, Anoj Subedi, He Huang, and Dong Ha Lee, Application of Water Indices in Surface Water Change Detection Using Landsat Imagery in Nepal, Sens. Mater., Vol. 31, No. 5, 2019, p. 1429-1447.
Forthcoming Regular Issues
Forthcoming Special Issues
Special Issue on International Conference on BioSensors, BioElectronics, BioMedical Devices, BioMEMS/NEMS and Applications 2018/2019 (Bio4Apps 2018/2019)
Guest editor, Xiaojun Han (Harbin Institute of Technology)Conference websiteSpecial Issue on New Trend of Robotics and Applications
Guest editor, Ikuo Yamamoto (Nagasaki University)Special Issue on Software, Algorithms, and Applications Using Sensors and Networks
Guest editor, Yoshito Tobe (Aoyama Gakuin University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Sensor Fusion and Environment Perception for Autonomous Systems
Guest editor, Chenguang Yang (University of the West of England, Bristol)Special Issue on Smart Sensing Technology and Materials for Smart Industry and Environmental Applications
Guest editor, Somyot Kaitwanidvilai (King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang)Special Issue on Advanced Materials on Electronic and Mechanical Devices and their Application on Sensors (2)
Guest editor, Teen-Hang Meen (National Formosa University), Wenbing Zhao (Cleveland State University), and Cheng-Fu Yang (National University of Kaohsiung)Call for paperSpecial Issue on CMOS-driven Biomedical Innovations
Guest editor, Kiichi Niitsu (Nagoya University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Environmental Sensing
Guest editor, Hiroshi Aoki and Tetsuya Nakazato (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Innovation in Smart Sensing Control, Metrology, Optimization and Intelligent Automation
Guest editor, Cheng-Chi Wang (National Chin-Yi University of Technology)Conference websiteCall for paperSpecial Issue on Advanced Micro and Nanomaterials for various Sensor Applications (Selected Papers from ICASI 2019)
Guest editor, Sheng-Joue Young (National Formosa University), Shoou-Jinn Chang (National Cheng Kung University), Liang-Wen Ji (National Formosa University), and Yu-Jen Hsiao (Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology)Conference websiteCall for paperSpecial Issue on Materials, Devices, Circuits, and Analytical Methods for Various Sensors (2)
Guest editor, Chien-Jung Huang (National University of Kaohsiung), Cheng-Hsing Hsu (National United University), Ja-Hao Chen (Feng Chia University), and Wei-Ling Hsu (Huaiyin Normal University)Conference websiteCall for paperSpecial Issue on Biological Odor Sensing System and Their Applications
Guest editor, Takeshi Sakurai (Tokyo University of Agriculture)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Novel Sensing Technologies for Point of Care, Home Care, and Personal Health Care
Guest editor, Yu-Lin Wang (National Tsing Hua University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Advances in Shape Memory Materials
Guest editor, Ryosuke Matsui (Aichi Institute of Technology) and Hiroyuki Miki (Tohoku University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Sensing in Medical Robots
Guest editor, Kenji Kawashima (Tokyo Medical and Dental University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Optical Sensors: Novel Materials, Approaches, and Applications
Guest editor, Yap Wing Fen (Universiti Putra Malaysia)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Perceptual Deep Learning in Computer Vision and its Application
Guest editor, Chih-Hsien Hsia (National Ilan University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on On-Site Energy
Guest editor, Hiroki Kuwano (Tohoku University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Sensing Technologies and Their Applications
Guest editor, Rey-Chue Hwang (I-Shou University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on New Trends in Smart Sensor Systems
Guest editor, Takahiro Hayashi (Kansai University)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Micro nano Biomedical Sensors, Devices, and Materials
Guest editor, Tetsuji Dohi (Chuo University) and Seiichi Takamatsu (The University of Tokyo)Call for paperSpecial Issue on Advanced Micro and Nanomaterials for various Sensor Applications (Selected Papers from ICASI 2020)
Guest editor, Sheng-Joue Young (National Formosa University), Shoou-Jinn Chang (National Cheng Kung University), Liang-Wen Ji (National Formosa University), and Yu-Jen Hsiao (Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology)Conference websiteCall for paper